"Teens and tanning knowledge and attitudes"ASHINOFF, ROBIN; Levine, Vicki J; Steuer, Alexa B; Sedwick, Carly
Background: The incidence of skin cancer, including melanoma, continues to increase. Teenagers are especially vulnerable, as are young females. The incidence of melanoma among young women in their twenties and thirties has begun to increase again. These young people are also the population that frequent tanning salons. Objective: This voluntary, anonymous, New York University, Institutional Review Board-approved survey was given to students in grades 9 through 12 to ascertain their understanding of what causes skin cancers and the dangers of excessive sun exposure and tanning salons. Methods and materials: An Institutional Review Board-approved, 22-question survey was administered anonymously to more than 450 students with 368 returned responses. The survey was administered to students in grades 9 through 12 at two high schools in New York and New Jersey. Results: More than 80 percent of students view movie stars as tan and almost 60 percent see 'tan' people as better looking. In addition, more than 90 percent believe that a tan does not prevent further damage to the skin (as opposed to the customary belief that a 'base' tan can protect against extreme sun exposures, such as when on a tropical vacation). There appears to be a disconnect between knowledge and sun tanning behaviors. Most teenagers still believe that tans are attractive and teenage girls continue to use tanning salons and tan naturally. We need to address the connection between sun tanning in youth and skin cancers years later. Legislation to limit access of tanning salons to teenagers needs to be enacted.
"Skin graft vascularization: regulated regression and replacement of endothelial cells" [Meeting Abstract]Capla, JM; Tepper, O; Bhatt, K; Galiano, R; Ceradini, D; Michaels, J; Dobryansky, M; ASHINOFF, R; Levine, J; Gurtner, G
"CXCR4/SDF-1 mediates selective endothelial progenitor cell recruitment to ischemic endothelium" [Meeting Abstract]Ceradini, DJ; Tepper, O; Capla, J; Michaels, J; Dobryansky, M; ASHINOFF, R; Pelo, C; Galiano, R; Levine, J; Gurtner, G
"A novel model for precise, accurate measurements of wound healing in mice" [Meeting Abstract]Michaels, J; Galiano, R; ASHINOFF, R; Ceradini, D; Dobryansky, M; Bhatt, K; Cetrulo, C; Capla, J; Levine, J; Gurtner, G
"Cutaneous lidocaine allergy confirmed by patch testing"Kaufmann, Julie M; Hale, Elizabeth K; ASHINOFF, ROBIN A; Cohen, David E
A case is presented of a 55-year old woman who developed an eruption suggestive of contact dermatitis on repeated occasions after receiving anesthesia for dermatologic procedures. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to lidocaine. Basic structures of anesthetics are reviewed, and the classification of immunologically-mediated allergic reactions is discussed. The presence of cutaneous lidocaine allergy has profound implications for the field of dermatology.
"Laser treatment of congenital and acquired vascular lesions. A review"Rothfleisch, Jeremy E; Kosann, Meredith Klein; Levine, Vicki J; ASHINOFF, ROBIN
Several quasi-continuous-wave and pulsed lasers can effectively treat a variety of vascular lesions. The pulsed dye laser and its newer variants were specifically designed to target hemoglobin and, by increasing their wavelengths slightly, have successfully achieved greater depths of penetration. When used in to compliance with the theory of selective photothermolysis, these systems have been shown to be safe and to have a low incidence of adverse sequelae. With the concomitant use of epidermal cooling systems, side-effect profiles have been further reduced. Although great progress has been made in the laser treatment of leg telangiectasias, even the newest laser systems have failed to meet patient expectations. Continuing advances in laser technology, however, will probably lead to enhanced clinical results, decreased side-effect profiles, improved hardware, and reduced costs.
"Laser removal of tattoos"Kuperman-Beade M; Levine VJ; ASHINOFF R
Tattoos are placed for different reasons. A technique for tattoo removal which produces selective removal of each tattoo pigment, with minimal risk of scarring, is needed. Nonspecific methods have a high incidence of scarring, textural, and pigmentary alterations compared with the use of Q-switched lasers. With new advances in Q-switched laser technology, tattoo removal can be achieved with minimal risk of scarring and permanent pigmentary alteration. There are five types of tattoos: amateur, professional, cosmetic, medicinal, and traumatic. Amateur tattoos require less treatment sessions than professional multicolored tattoos. Other factors to consider when evaluating tattoos for removal are: location, age and the skin type of the patient. Treatment should begin by obtaining a pre-operative history. Since treatment with the Q-switched lasers is painful, use of a local injection with lidocaine or topical anaesthesia cream may be used prior to laser treatment. Topical broad-spectrum antibacterial ointment is applied immediately following the procedure. Three types of lasers are currently used for tattoo removal: Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 1064 nm), and Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm). The Q-switched ruby and alexandrite lasers are useful for removing black, blue and green pigments. The Q-switched 532 nm Nd:YAG laser can be used to remove red pigments and the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser is used for removal of black and blue pigments. The most common adverse effects following laser tattoo treatment with the Q-switched ruby laser include textural change, scarring, and pigmentary alteration. Transient hypopigmentation and textural changes have been reported in up to 50 and 12%, respectively, of patients treated with the Q-switched alexandrite laser. Hyperpigmentation and textural changes are infrequent adverse effects of the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and the incidence of hypopigmentary changes is much lower than with the ruby laser. The development of localized and generalized allergic reactions is an unusual complication following tattoo removal with the Q-switched ruby and Nd:YAG lasers. Since many wavelengths are needed to treat multicolored tattoos, not one laser system can be used alone to remove all the available inks and combination of inks. While laser tattoo removal is not perfect, we have come a long way since the advent of Q-switched lasers. Current research is focusing on newer picosecond lasers, which may be more successful than the Q-switched lasers in the removal of the new vibrant tattoo links.
"Overview: soft tissue augmentation"ASHINOFF R
No single filler substance meets all of a clinician's expectations. There are, however, many substances currently available that are useful in the soft tissue armamentarium. This article reviews the many filler substances; their indications, shortcomings, complications, and approval status by the Federal Food and Drug Administration.
"Er:YAG laser for the treatment of actinic keratoses"Jiang SB; Levine VJ; Nehal KS; Baldassano M; Kamino H; ASHINOFF RA
BACKGROUND: There is no single optimal treatment for multiple facial actinic keratoses. The existing therapies such as topical 5-fluorouracil, chemical peels, cryotherapy, dermabrasion, and CO2 laser resurfacing can produce prolonged recovery time or are often operator dependent. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate another therapeutic modality which provides a shorter recovery time with uniform results. We performed a prospective pilot study investigating the use of the Er:YAG laser for the treatment of multiple facial actinic keratoses. METHODS: Five patients with multiple facial actinic keratoses were treated with two to three passes of Er:YAG laser. Anesthesia was achieved in all cases by topical application and local infiltration when indicated. All patients were treated with 2.0 J, 5 mm spot size, and a fluence of 10 J/cm2. Clinical and histologic evaluations were performed both pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS: All patients showed a decrease in the total number of clinical actinic keratoses on the face ranging from 86 to 96%. In addition to the reversal of actinic damage in the epidermis, histologic evidence revealed increased fibroplasia and decreased superficial solar elastosis 3 months after the laser resurfacing. Reepithelialization occurred in 5-8 days, and erythema lasted for about 3-6 weeks after the procedure. There was no evidence of scarring or pigmentary changes in any of the patients during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing is a safe and effective treatment for multiple facial actinic keratoses. Histologic data suggest a new zone of collagen deposition occurs in the superficial papillary dermis. Under our current parameters, Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing has a relatively short recovery period and a low risk of scarring. Unlike the CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing can be performed with topical anesthesia alone.
"Comparative study of the efficacy of four topical anesthetics"Friedman PM; Fogelman JP; Nouri K; Levine VJ; ASHINOFF R
BACKGROUND: With the emergence of new laser and dermatologic procedures, the need for more effective topical anesthesia continues to grow. There are now several topical anesthetics that are being used prior to laser and surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: To compare the degree and duration of anesthesia produced by four commonly used topical anesthetics, we performed a prospective study investigating the efficacy of EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics), ELA-Max, 4% tetracaine gel, and betacaine-LA ointment (formerly eutectic-LA). METHODS: Equal amounts of the above topical anesthetics plus a control (eucerin cream) were applied to 10 test sites under occlusion on the volar forearms of 12 adult volunteers. After a 60-minute application time, the degree of anesthesia was assessed immediately by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Pain testing was also performed 30 minutes after the 60-minute application period. Volunteer responses to pain stimuli were recorded using an ordinal scale of 0 (no pain) to 4 (maximal pain). The mean scores for the time intervals were obtained. Analysis of the data was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Newman-Keuls test, Friedman rank order test, and paired t-tests. RESULTS: ELA-Max, EMLA, and tetracaine were statistically superior to control after the 60-minute application period. Thirty minutes later, ELA-Max, EMLA, tetracaine, and betacaine-LA were all statistically superior to the control. Comparing individual anesthetics, ELA-Max and EMLA were the superior anesthetics at both time intervals. Although the mean pain scores for each anesthetic were lower 30 minutes after their removal, the differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective study comparing the efficacy of several new topical anesthetic agents. Using the methodology of this study, in which the anesthetics were applied under occlusion, ELA-Max and EMLA were the superior anesthetics after a 60-minute application time and 30 minutes later. In addition, there was a clinical increase in efficacy suggested with all of the anesthetics 30 minutes after their removal.
"Treatment of mature striae with the pulsed dye laser"Nehal KS; Lichtenstein DA; Kamino H; Levine VJ; ASHINOFF R
INTRODUCTION: Striae are a common cosmetic problem with no effective treatment options. A recent study has shown improvement in the appearance of mature striae following a single 585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment at low fluence. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of treating mature striae with the 585-nm PDL. METHODS: Five patients with mature striae on the abdomen were prospectively treated with the 585-nm PDL at 2-month intervals for 1-2 years. The response of the striae to laser treatment was evaluated in each patient through sequential clinical, photographic, textural, and histologic assessment. RESULTS: All five patients reported a slight overall improvement in the appearance of the striae following multiple PDL treatments. Comparison of pre- and post-treatment photographs, however, failed to reveal improvement in any patients. Optical profilometry performed on striae impressions showed mild improvement in the surface texture of striae in three patients. Histologic comparison of pre- and post-treatment biopsy specimens failed to reveal normalization of skin architecture. CONCLUSIONS: Serial treatment of mature striae with the PDL results in mild, subjective, clinical improvement but no significant photographic, textural or histologic improvement.
"Pulsed dye laser treatment of warts: an update"Ross BS; Levine VJ; Nehal K; Tse Y; ASHINOFF R
BACKGROUND: Warts are a therapeutic challenge. New studies indicate that pulsed dye laser therapy may be effective, with clearance rates of 72 to 93%. OBJECTIVE: To determine clearance rate in pulsed dye laser treatment of warts and compare our rate to those of other published studies. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with 96 warts received pulsed dye laser treatment for recalcitrant plantar, digital, peri- and subungual, and body warts. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of patients had complete wart clearance; 45% partially cleared. Sixty-nine percent of those who cleared remained wart-free for an average of 11 months. Mean fluence was 9.4 J/cm2, with an average of 3.4 treatments. Body and palmar warts responded best, digital and peri- and subungual next, and plantar lesions worst. No significant side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: Pulsed dye laser is an effective treatment option for recalcitrant warts with an excellent side effect profile. However, our response rates were not as high as those previously reported, and we feel that further studies would be useful.
"Basal cell carcinoma of the genitalia"Nehal KS; Levine VJ; ASHINOFF R
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) arising on the genitalia are exceedingly rare with an unclear pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To better understand risk factors, tumor characteristics, and the possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of BCC of the genitalia. METHODS: 1543 records of Mohs micrographic surgery performed during a 6-year period were reviewed to identify cases of BCC arising on the genitalia. Tumor tissue was analyzed for HPV DNA by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Four patients with BCC of the genitalia were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. The malignancies were located on the scrotum, perineum, and perianal areas in the three male patients and on the vulva in the female patient. The mean age was 67 years. None of the patients had prior history of skin cancers. Histologic evaluation of the tumors revealed two nodular subtypes, one superficial subtype, and one with follicular differentiation. In situ hybridization failed to reveal DNA of HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, and 52. CONCLUSION: In this small series, genital BCC occurred in an older age group with no identifiable predisposing risk factors and did not show evidence of HPV infection.
"Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in a circumcised man: a case for dermatology and urology, and review of the literature"Ross BS; Levine VJ; Dixon C; ASHINOFF R
Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is most frequent in uncircumcised men. Other contributing factors include human papillomavirus infection, phimosis, balanitis, and smoking. We present a patient, circumcised at birth, who showed penile squamous cell carcinoma in situ and was treated with carbon dioxide laser ablation. Squamous cell carcinoma rarely presents in patients circumcised as infants. Factors contributing to chronic inflammation may predispose to this disease. Carbon dioxide and neodymium:YAG lasers are two modalities that are successful in the treatment of in situ and probably early invasive penile carcinoma. Optimal treatment includes coordination with a urologist if urethral disease is present.
"Short-pulse carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in the treatment of rhytides and scars. A clinical and histopathological study"Shim E; Tse Y; Velazquez E; Kamino H; Levine V; ASHINOFF R
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown the efficacy of short-pulse carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers in the treatment of rhytides and scars. To date, there have been few studies examining the histological aspects of these treatments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a prospective clinical and histopathological study of CO2 laser resurfacing for improvement of facial rhytides and scars. METHODS: A total of 23 patients were studied. Clinical improvement was evaluated both pre- and postoperatively using photographs and optical profilometry. Skin biopsies of rhytides were also obtained. RESULTS: Postoperatively, rhytides and scars both demonstrated significant increases in clinical improvement scores. Results from optical profilometry studies reflected these results. Skin biopsies from rhytides posttreatment demonstrated increases in collagen layer thickness. Improvement was sustained as late as 1 year following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological studies suggest improvement of rhytides and scars by CO2 laser resurfacing may be attributed to new collagen formation following treatment.
"Laser treatment of acquired vascular lesions"Ross BS; Levine VJ; ASHINOFF R
Several quasi-continuous wave and pulsed lasers can effectively treat a variety of vascular lesions. The PDL follows the theory of selective photothermolysis, is safe for infants and children, and has a low incidence of side effects. It is successful in treating telangiectasias, spider and cherry angiomas, pyogenic granulomas, venous lakes, and poikiloderma of Civatte, as well as small leg telangiectasias. Quasi-continuous wave lasers such as the APTDL, copper vapor, krypton, and KTP lasers can be used to treat telangiectasias and other vascular lesions as well. Although they carry a higher risk of complications, they may prove more useful in treating larger caliber vessels. Although the PDL often produces superior clinical results than the quasi-continuous wave lasers, some patients may prefer these latter lasers because of the lack of post-operative purpura. Lastly, newer lasers, as well as noncoherent light sources, are being developed for the treatment of leg telangiectasias. Continuing advances in laser technology will enhance results, decrease side effects, improve equipment, and reduce costs, with great benefit to an increasing patient population.
"The treatment of benign pigmented lesions and tattoos with the Q-switched ruby laser. A comparative study using the 5.0- and 6.5-mm spot size"Nehal KS; Levine VJ; ASHINOFF R
BACKGROUND: The Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) is useful in the treatment of benign pigmented lesions and tattoos. Two spot sizes are available in the QSRL (5 and 6.5 mm). It has not been shown if one spot size is more efficacious in the treatment of benign pigmented lesions and tattoos. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical lightening and side effects observed with the 5.0- and 6.5-mm spot sizes of the QSRL in the treatment of benign pigmented lesions and tattoos. METHODS: Eleven patients with 12 benign pigmented lesions or tattoos were prospectively studied with the QSRL. Half of the lesion was treated with the 5.0-mm spot size while the other half was treated with the 6.5-mm spot size. Clinical lightening of the lesion was assessed using pretreatment and posttreatment photographs. RESULTS: No significant clinical difference in the lightening of lesions or in the side effect profile was observed with either spot size. CONCLUSIONS: The 5.0- and 6.5-mm spot sizes of the QSRL are equally efficacious in the removal of benign pigmented lesions and tattoos. It seems prudent to use the 6.5-mm spot size when treating large lesions to reduce treatment time, patient discomfort, and treatment cost.
"A clinical and histologic evaluation of two medium-depth peels. Glycolic acid versus Jessner's trichloroacetic acid"Tse Y; Ostad A; Lee HS; Levine VJ; Koenig K; Kamino H; ASHINOFF R
BACKGROUND: Chemical peels using alpha hydroxy acids have become one of the most frequently requested dermatologic procedures. The use of glycolic acid in superficial chemical peels is now well established. However, the role of glycolic acid in medium-depth chemical peels has yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We performed a clinical and histologic comparison of 70% glycolic acid versus Jessner's solution as part of a medium-depth chemical peel using 35% trichloroacetic acid (TCA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with actinic keratoses, solar lentigines and fine wrinkling were evaluated prospectively. Each patient was treated with 70% glycolic acid plus 35% TCA (GA-TCA) to the right face and Jessner's solution plus 35% TCA (JS-TCA) to the left face. Clinical and histologic changes were evaluated at 7, 30, and 60 days postoperatively. RESULTS: Clinically, the GA-TCA peel was effective in treating photodamaged skin. The GA-TCA peel was slightly more efficacious in removing actinic keratoses (clinical response score = 1.5) than the JS-TCA peel (clinical response score = 1.0). Histologically, the GA-TCA peel caused the formation of a slightly thicker Grenz zone (mean = 0.053 mm) 60 days postpeel than the JS-TCA peel (mean = 0.048 mm) (not statistically significant). The GA-TCA peel caused more neoelastogenesis than the JS-TCA peel, while the JS-TCA peel resulted in more papillary dermal fibrosis and neovascularization than the GA-TCA peel. CONCLUSION: The GA-TCA peel is a new medium-depth chemical peel that is effective in treating photodamaged skin.