"Treatment Responses to Tooth Whitening in Twins"CORBY, PATRICIA M A; Biesbrock, Aaron; Gerlach, Robert; Corby, Andrea L; Moreira, Alexandre; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A
The aim of this study was to determine heritability estimates of treatment responses to a 10% hydrogen peroxide strip-based whitening system in twins. Eighty-five twin pairs were randomly assigned to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips or placebo strips without peroxide. Both twins (monozygotic or dizygotic) received the same treatment. Maxillary teeth were treated for 30 minutes twice daily for 7 days. Efficacy was measured objectively as L* (light-dark), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue) color change from digital images at baseline () and day 8. Heritability estimates for tooth whitening treatment responses for changes from day 8 to baseline were obtained using variance-component methodologies. Whitening treatment responses were highly heritable (h2 = 71.0) for b* and a*(p < .0001), but not for L* (h2 = 27.0), which was essentially modulated by environmental factors. This study has demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors significantly contributed to seven-day whitening treatment responses achieved with 10% hydrogen peroxide strips..
"HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva"Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; CORBY, PATRICIA M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel
GRANTS:U19 DE018385/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
Limited information is available about the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interaction. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition in 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that of 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. Both a conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV+ subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, S. mutans, and Candida, in saliva as compared to HIV- subjects. The total cultivable microbial level was significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM), which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed a clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus, were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes were observed in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas and RothiaI. Severn genera were detected only in HIV- samples, including Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium. The prevalence of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, and Atopobium was increased after therapy with HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. Findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and therapy with HAART could have a significant effect on salivary microbial colonization and composition..
"Toothbrush efficacy for plaque removal"Nightingale, Kj; Chinta, Sk; Agarwal, P; Nemelivsky, M; Frisina, Ac; Cao, Z; Norman, Rg; Fisch, Gs; CORBY, P
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of a novel sonic toothbrush in reducing plaque and in maintenance of gingival health when compared to a standard manual brush. METHODS: This study was a block-randomized, examiner-blind, two-treatment, parallel group, single centre clinical investigation. A total of 84 subjects were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either the Panasonic EW-DL90 or an American Dental Association-endorsed manual toothbrush. Subjects were instructed to follow a twice-daily brushing regimen without flossing. Plaque levels and gingival health were assessed at baseline and after 1 and 3 weeks of treatment using the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index and the Papillary Bleeding Score. RESULTS: Subjects assigned to the EW-DL90 group had significantly lower plaque levels after 1 and 3 weeks of treatment than those in the manual group (P = 0.003 and 0.0035, respectively). Both groups showed a reduction in plaque levels at Week 3 relative to baseline. The EW-DL90 group had significantly lower gingival inflammation scores after 1 week of treatment (P = 0.0293), but there was no difference between groups after 3 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION: The EW-DL90 toothbrush safely and effectively removes more plaque than a standard manual toothbrush. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed after 1 week of treatment. There was no difference in Papillary Bleeding Score between the two groups after 3 weeks of treatment. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed sonic brush (Panasonic EW-DL90) tested in this study was found to be more effective than a manual toothbrush at plaque removal. The papillary bleeding scores were significantly lower in the sonic brush group after 1 week of product use. After 3 weeks of product use, both treatment groups had similar papillary bleeding scores almost returning to baseline values..
"Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer"Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; CORBY, PATRICIA M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G
GRANTS:UL1 RR024129/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence..
"Review of Preclinical Studies on Treatment of Mucositis and Associated Pain"Viet, C T; CORBY, P M; Akinwande, A; Schmidt, B L
Oral mucositis is a significant problem in cancer patients treated with radiation or chemotherapy, often hindering definitive cancer treatment. For patients with oral mucositis, pain is the most distressing symptom, leading to loss of orofacial function and poor quality of life. While oral mucositis has been well-described, its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Oral health professionals treating patients with mucositis have almost no effective therapies to treat or prevent oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to (1) describe the current preclinical models of oral mucositis and their contribution to the understanding of mucositis pathophysiology, (2) explore preclinical studies on therapies targeting mucositis and discuss the clinical trials that have resulted from these preclinical studies, and (3) describe the proposed pathophysiology of oral mucositis pain and preclinical modeling of oral mucositis pain..
"Results of a 950-patient phase 2/3 clinical characteriz ation-as sociation study to classify patients with Potentially Malignant Oral Disorders (PMODs) using a non-invasive Lab-On-a -Chip (LOC) approach" [Meeting Abstract]Floriano, P N; Kerr, A R; Schmidt, B L; CORBY, P; El, Khouly Castilla I; Thornhill, M H; D'Apice, K; Murdoch, C; Speight, P; Redding, S; McGuff, S; Yeh, C -K; Westbrook, S; Diburro, M; Rowan, S; Vigneswaran, N; Weinstock, E Y; Demian, N; Nguyen, T T; Sanchez, M; Christodoulides, N; Gaur, S; Karthikeyan, K; Talavera, H; Nguyen, M; Le, C; Taylor, L; McDevitt, J T
Purpose: To develop and validate a lab-on-a-chip method to analyze exfoliated cells collected from a non-invasive brush biopsy in a NIDCR-sponsored 950-patient multi-site international clinical trial. Material and methods: Three groups of subjects (PMOD, OSCC, and normal controls) were enrolled at three American and one European sites in this prospective study. Matched brush and scalpel biopsies were collected from all non-cont rol subjects. Three-color immunofluorescence analysis of cellular samples (an average of ~2000 cells/sample) for up to 25 cytomor phometric parameters and bio-marker expression (of seven candida te biomarke rs) were generated in an automated manner and processed using sophisticated image analysis algorithms based on pattern recognition techniques and advanced statistical methods. Results: At the time of this writing, 280 samples from the training phase have been processed, and preliminary data for single parameters exhibit high dis criminating ability when compared to gold standard histopathology, to differentiate between each category of normal, benign, dysplastic, and OSCC samples in a dichoto mized way. In this talk, we expect to report final results from the full 950-patient trial, with completion anticipated in March 2013, with samples from 2/3 of the patients to serve as training data, and 1/3 of the data analyzed blindly in the valid ation stage. The performance of single parameters as well as various multivariate models combining morphological and molecular biomarkers, measured as AUCs relating to the ability to discriminate between each disease category will be presented, as well as in low versus high risk models for both the training and validation sets. Conclusions: Based on very promising preliminary results, we expect the outcome of this study to produce a tool based on LOC analysis of exfoliated cells collected non invasively and capable of discrim inating between benign and dysplas tic or OSCC lesions with high sensitivity and specificity with multivariate!.
"Histomorphometric comparison of different concentrations of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein with allogeneic bone compared to the use of 100% mineralized cancellous bone allograft in maxillary sinus grafting"Froum, Stuart J; Wallace, Stephen; Cho, Sang-Choon; Khouly, Ismael; Rosenberg, Edwin; CORBY, PATRICIA; Froum, Scott; Bromage, Timothy; Schoor, Robert; Norman, Robert; Tarnow, Dennis P
The purpose of this study was to histomorphometrically evaluate the percentage of vital bone after grafting of maxillary sinuses using two different concentrations of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) combined with mineralized cancellous bone allograft (MCBA) and to compare the results to a control sinus grafted with MCBA only. Thirty-six sinuses in 18 patients had two of three of the graft combinations including: (1) control, MCBA only; (2) test one, MCBA + 5.6 mL of rhBMP-2/ACS (containing 8.4 mg of rhBMP-2); or (3) test two, MCBA + 2.8 mL of rhBMP-2/ACS (containing 4.2 mg of rhBMP-2). Histologic cores were taken 6 to 9 month following sinus augmentation. The results showed no statistically significant differences in vital bone between the two test groups compared to the control sinus group treated with MCBA alone. Future studies involving more cases and evaluating survival of implants placed in these augmented sinuses are needed to verify the results of this randomized prospective study..
"A histomorphometric comparison of Bio-Oss alone versus Bio-Oss and platelet-derived growth factor for sinus augmentation: a postsurgical assessment"Froum, Stuart J; Wallace, Stephen; Cho, Sang-Choon; Rosenburg, Edwin; Froum, Scott; Schoor, Robert; Mascarenhas, Patrick; Tarnow, Dennis P; CORBY, PATRICIA; Elian, Nicolas; Fickl, Stefan; Ricci, John; Hu, Bin; Bromage, Timothy; Khouly, Ismael
The purpose of this study was to assess vital bone formation at 4 to 5 months and 7 to 9 months following sinus augmentation with anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABBM) with and without recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF). Twenty-four subjects received bilateral sinus elevation surgery with ABBM on one side and ABBM and rhPDGF on the contralateral side. Twelve patients had core sampling at 4 to 5 months and 12 patients at 7 to 9 months postoperatively. In subjects with cores taken at 4 to 5 months, mean vital bone, connective tissue, and residual graft were 11.8%, 54.1%, and 33.6%, respectively, with ABBM alone. Cores of sinuses filled with ABBM and rhPDGF showed mean 21.1% vital bone, 51.4% connective tissue, and 24.8% residual graft. Paired t test showed a statistically significant difference in vital bone. In cores taken at 7 to 9 months, the values for ABBM alone and ABBM + rhPDGF were 21.4% vs 19.5% vital bone, 28.4% vs 44.2% connective tissue, and 40.3% residual graft vs 35.5%. There was no statistically significant difference in vital bone at 7 to 9 months after surgery. Test and control groups showed clinically acceptable levels of vital bone both at 4 to 5 months and 7 to 9 months postsurgery. However, vital bone formation was significantly greater in the 4- to 5-month sections of ABBM + rhPDGF vs the Bio-Oss alone. In the 7- to 9-month specimens, this difference disappeared. More rapid formation of vital bone with the addition of rhPDGF may allow for earlier implant placement..
"An evaluation of 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels in patients with acute toothaches: efficacy, tolerability and compliance with label dose administration directions"Hersh, Elliot V; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T; Moore, Paul A; Boynes, Sean G; Levine, Steven C; Casamassimo, Paul; Leyva, Rina; Mathew, Tanya; Shibly, Othman; Creighton, Paul; Jeffers, Gary E; CORBY, PATRICIA M A; Turetzky, Stanley N; Papas, Athena; Wallen, Jillian; Idzik-Starr, Cynthia; Gordon, Sharon M
GRANTS:UL1 TR000090/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
BACKGROUND: The authors evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels compared with those of a vehicle (placebo) gel for the temporary relief of toothache pain. They also assessed the compliance with the label dose administration directions on the part of participants with toothache pain. METHODS: Under double-masked conditions, 576 participants self-applied study gel to an open tooth cavity and surrounding oral tissues. Participants evaluated their pain intensity and pain relief for 120 minutes. The authors determined the amount of gel the participants applied. RESULTS: The responders' rates (the primary efficacy parameter), defined as the percentage of participants who had an improvement in pain intensity as exhibited by a pain score reduction of at least one unit on the dental pain scale from baseline for two consecutive assessments any time between the five- and 20-minute points, were 87.3 percent, 80.7 percent and 70.4 percent, respectively, for 20 percent benzocaine gel, 10 percent benzocaine gel and vehicle gel. Both benzocaine gels were significantly (P = .05) better than vehicle gel; the 20 percent benzocaine gel also was significantly (P = .05) better than the 10 percent benzocaine gel. The mean amount of gel applied was 235.6 milligrams, with 88.2 percent of participants applying 400 mg or less. CONCLUSIONS: Both 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels were more efficacious than the vehicle gel, and the 20 percent benzocaine gel was more efficacious than the 10 percent benzocaine gel. All treatments were well tolerated by participants. Practical Implications. Patients can use 10 percent and 20 percent benzocaine gels to temporarily treat toothache pain safely..
"Association between Selected Oral Pathogens and Gastric Precancerous Lesions"Salazar, Christian R; Sun, Jinghua; Li, Yihong; Francois, Fritz; CORBY, PATRICIA; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Dasanayake, Ananda; Pei, Zhiheng; Chen, Yu
GRANTS:ES000260/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States;K23CA107123/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States;P30CA016087/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States;R21DE018438/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States;T32-DE007255/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus). There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR) for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87-2.12), P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67-1.88) and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83-2.12) measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13-5.56) among those with >/= median of percent tooth sites with PD>/=3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43-1.72). A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03-0.06). Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions..
"In vivo effects of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride on plaque metabolism"Wolff, M; CORBY, P; Klaczany, G; Santarpia, P; Lavender, S; Gittins, E; Vandeven, M; Cummins, D; Sullivan, R
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the results of a clinical study assessing the in vivo effects on plaque metabolism of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride compared to a commercially available dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride alone. METHODS: A four-week, parallel, randomized, double-blind clinical study using 54 subjects was conducted at the New York University College of Dentistry Bluestone Center for Clinical Research. Two study groups used the following products for two weeks: 1) a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP; test); and 2) a commercial silica dentifrice with 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF; control). In the following two-week period, all subjects used the control product. The effects of product use on plaque metabolism in vivo were assessed by conducting ex vivo analyses at baseline, after two weeks of assigned product use, and after two weeks of control product use. These plaque analyses comprised pH measurements before and after an in vivo sucrose rinse, and measurements of ammonia production and lactate production. RESULTS: The study showed that subjects using the test dentifrice, containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride, had significantly higher plaque pH values before the sucrose challenge than those using the commercially available control dentifrice (p < or = 0.01). Plaque samples from subjects using the arginine-containing dentifrice also produced significantly higher levels of ammonia (p < or = 0.01). Subjects using the arginine-containing dentifrice also had a directionally higher plaque pH after the sucrose challenge, and their plaque samples produced a directionally lower level of lactate during the two-week treatment period compared to subjects using the control dentifrice. Following two weeks of subsequent use of the control product, there were no significant differences in plaque metabolism measures between groups. CONCLUSION: A new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride has been shown in this study to modulate plaque metabolism, increasing ammonia production and decreasing lactate production, thereby increasing plaque pH to help restore a pH-neutral environment..
"HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes"Liu, G; Saxena, D; Chen, Z; Norman, R G; Phelan, J A; Laverty, M; Fisch, G S; CORBY, P M; Abrams, W; Malamud, D; Li, Y
GRANTS:U19 DE018385/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes..
"Association between oral health and gastric precancerous lesions"Salazar, Christian R; Francois, Fritz; Li, Yihong; CORBY, PATRICIA; Hays, Rosemary; Leung, Celine; Bedi, Sukhleen; Segers, Stephanie; Queiroz, Erica; Sun, Jinghua; Wang, Beverly; Ho, Hao; Craig, Ronald; Cruz, Gustavo D; Blaser, Martin J; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Hayes, Richard B; Dasanayake, Ananda; Pei, Zhiheng; Chen, Yu
GRANTS:ES000260/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States;K23CA107123/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States;P30CA016087/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States;R21DE018438/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States;T32-DE007255/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
Although recent studies have suggested that tooth loss is positively related to the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, the underlying oral health conditions potentially responsible for the association remain unknown. We investigated whether clinical and behavioral measures of oral health are associated with the risk of gastric precancerous lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 131 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Cases were defined as those with gastric precancerous lesions including intestinal metaplasia or chronic atrophic gastritis on the basis of standard biopsy review. A validated structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on oral health behaviors. A comprehensive clinical oral health examination was performed on a subset of 91 patients to evaluate for periodontal disease and dental caries experience. A total of 41 (31%) cases of gastric precancerous lesions were identified. Compared with non-cases, cases were significantly more likely to not floss their teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-7.64], adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status, educational attainment and Helicobacter pylori status in serum. Among participants who completed the oral examination, cases (n = 28) were more likely to have a higher percentage of sites with gingival bleeding than non-cases [OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.37-5.05 for a standard deviation increase in bleeding sites (equivalent to 19.7%)], independent of potential confounders. Our findings demonstrate that specific oral health conditions and behaviors such as gingival bleeding and tooth flossing are associated with gastric precancerous lesions..
"Environmental and genetic contributions to indicators of oral malodor in twins"Bretz, Walter A; Biesbrock, Aaron; CORBY, PATRICIA M; Corby, Andrea L; Bretz, Walter G; Wessel, Jennifer; Schork, Nicholas J
GRANTS:DE15351/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States;R01 DE015351-04/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
This study aimed to: (1) determine concordance rates of self-reported and subjectively determined indicators of oral malodor in twins; (2) determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in intraoral and exhaled breath. Fifty-one twin pairs participated in the study. Measurements of VSCs were obtained by a halimeter. The presence of tongue coatings was determined and twins filled out a 32-item questionnaire on oral malodor indicators independently of one another. Estimates of heritability (h2) for halimeter measurements were computed by SOLAR. The concordance rates for the presence of tongue coating among identical and fraternal twins were 67% and 11%, respectively. In the 10 most informative items, 70% exhibited higher concordance rates for identical than for fraternal twins. Of particular interest were the differences in concordance rates for dry mouth, sinus infection and unusual sweating. The h2 for intraoral breath was 0.28 +/- 0.17 (NS), whereas the h2 for exhaled breath was 0.50 +/- 0.20 (p = .0207). The concordance rates of tongue coatings and malodor indicators were higher in identical twins than in fraternal twins. Intraoral breath VSC values were primarily attributable to environmental factors, whereas exhaled breath VSC values were partially explained by genetic factors..
"Identification of microbial and proteomic biomarkers in early childhood caries"Hart, Thomas C; CORBY, PATRICIA M; Hauskrecht, Milos; Hee Ryu, Ok; Pelikan, Richard; Valko, Michal; Oliveira, Maria B; Hoehn, Gerald T; Bretz, Walter A
The purpose of this study was to provide a univariate and multivariate analysis of genomic microbial data and salivary mass-spectrometry proteomic profiles for dental caries outcomes. In order to determine potential useful biomarkers for dental caries, a multivariate classification analysis was employed to build predictive models capable of classifying microbial and salivary sample profiles with generalization performance. We used high-throughput methodologies including multiplexed microbial arrays and SELDI-TOF-MS profiling to characterize the oral flora and salivary proteome in 204 children aged 1-8 years (n = 118 caries-free, n = 86 caries-active). The population received little dental care and was deemed at high risk for childhood caries. Findings of the study indicate that models incorporating both microbial and proteomic data are superior to models of only microbial or salivary data alone. Comparison of results for the combined and independent data suggests that the combination of proteomic and microbial sources is beneficial for the classification accuracy and that combined data lead to improved predictive models for caries-active and caries-free patients. The best predictive model had a 6% test error, >92% sensitivity, and >95% specificity. These findings suggest that further characterization of the oral microflora and the salivary proteome associated with health and caries may provide clinically useful biomarkers to better predict future caries experience..
"Issues of recruitment and rationale for conducting clinical trials on mutans streptococci suppression in mothers. L"Bretz, Walter A; Rosa, Odila P S; Silva, Salete M B; CORBY, PATRICIA; Weissfeld, Lisa; Loesche, Walter J
GRANTS:R01 DE013534-01A1/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
The aims of this study are (1) to describe issues related to recruitment of mothers participating in a clinical trial of transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from mother to child in Bauru, Brazil and (2) to perform cross-cultural and temporal comparisons of levels of infection of the MS in mothers of Bauru. A total of 1422 mothers were visited at their domiciles. Cutoff levels for the MS were established at >/=10(5) CFU/mL saliva. The main reason for a mother not enrolling was not being highly infected by the MS, yet 76% of mothers presented with levels >/=10(5) CFU/mL saliva. Recent studies in industrialized countries showed a negative coefficient for linear tests indicating significant decline overtime in the levels of MS in mothers. Intercountry comparisons for mothers' salivary levels of the MS with the Bauru study as the reference revealed significant differences with studies conducted in the last two decades.
"Use of a mucoadhesive disk for relief of dry mouth: a randomized, double-masked, controlled crossover study"Kerr, A Ross; CORBY, PATRICIA M; Shah, Sonal S; Epler, Monika; Fisch, Gene S; Norman, Robert G
BACKGROUND: Dry mouth is a frequent complaint of adults worldwide. In those who experience dry mouth, therapeutic options include the use of salivary substitutes and sialogogues. METHODS: The authors compared the efficacy and safety of mucoadhesive disks (OraMoist, Axiomedic, Zurich; distributed by Quantum Health, Eugene, Ore.) applied three times daily with those of placebo mucoadhesive disks in a double-masked, randomized, controlled crossover study. The primary end point of interest was within-participant differences in subjective (visual analog scale) ratings of dry mouth according to the New York University Bluestone Mouthfeel Questionnaire. The secondary end point was within-participant differences in salivary flow rates. RESULTS: Twenty-seven participants completed the single-site study. The results showed no significant difference between the two types of mucoadhesive disks, both of which were associated with a statistically significant improvement in the subjective experience of moistness across the 60-minute period after application and compared with baseline measures after two weeks of use. Furthermore, both disks were associated with a statistically significant improvement in salivary flow rates across the 60-minute period after application and compared with baseline measures after one and two weeks of use. The disks were well tolerated, and participants did not report any adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The mucoadhesive disks used in this study were safe and provided symptomatic relief from dry mouth. Practice Implications. Patients with dry mouth may benefit from this novel delivery system..
"Treatment outcomes of dental flossing in twins: molecular analysis of the interproximal microflora"CORBY, PATRICIA M A; Biesbrock, Aaron; Bartizek, Robert; Corby, Andrea L; Monteverde, Robin; Ceschin, Rafael; Bretz, Walter A
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dental flossing on the microbial composition of interproximal plaque samples in matched twins. METHODS: The study was a two-treatment, examiner-masked, randomized, parallel-group, controlled study. Fifty-one twin pairs between 12 and 21 years of age were randomized to a 2-week supervised and unsupervised treatment regimen consisting of tongue brushing and toothbrushing or tongue brushing and toothbrushing plus flossing. The reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay was used to assess levels (abundance) of 26 microbial species in interproximal plaque samples collected from six sites per subject. An integrative computational predictive model estimated average changes in microbial abundance patterns of selected bacterial species from baseline to 2 weeks by comparing treatment groups. RESULTS: After the 2-week study period, putative periodontal pathogens and cariogenic bacteria were overabundant in the group that did not floss compared to the group that performed flossing. Those included Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Prevotella intermedia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Streptococcus mutans. Microbial species that are not consistent with the development of periodontal disease or dental caries were overabundant in the group that did floss compared to the non-flossing group. CONCLUSION: In a well-matched twin cohort, tooth and tongue brushing plus flossing significantly decreased the abundance of microbial species associated with periodontal disease and dental caries after a 2-week program.
"Inheritance of occlusal topography: a twin study"Su, C-Y; CORBY, P M; Elliot, M A; Studen-Pavlovich, D A; Ranalli, D N; Rosa, B; Wessel, J; Schork, N J; Hart, T C; Bretz, W A
GRANTS:R01 DE015351-03/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
AIM: This was to determine the relative contribution of genetic factors on the morphology of occlusal surfaces of mandibular primary first molars by employing the twin study model. METHODS: The occlusal morphology of mandibular primary first molar teeth from dental casts of 9 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and 12 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs 4 to 7 years old, were digitized by contact-type three-dimensional (3D) scanner. To compare the similarity of occlusal morphology between twin sets, each twin pair of occlusal surfaces was superimposed to establish the best fit by using computerized least squared techniques. Heritability was computed using a variance component model, adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: DZ pairs demonstrated a greater degree of occlusal morphology variance. The total amount of difference in surface overlap was 0.0508 mm (0.0018 (inches) for the MZ (n=18) sample and 0.095 mm (0.0034 inches) for the DZ (n=24) sample and were not statistically significant (p=0.2203). The transformed mean differences were not statistically significantly different (p=0.2203). Heritability estimates of occlusal surface areas for right and left mandibular primary first molars were 97.5% and 98.2% (p<0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Occlusal morphology of DZ twin pairs was more variable than that of MZ twin pairs. Heritability estimates revealed that genetic factors strongly influence occlusal morphology of mandibular primary first molars.
"Microbial acid production (Clinpro Cario L-Pop) and dental caries in infants and children"Bretz, W A; CORBY, P M A; Costa, S; Quadros, M; Tavares, V S; Moreira, G; Filho, M R Melo; Weyant, R J
GRANTS:DE14528/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States;DE15351/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States;R01 DE015351-03/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the Clinpro Cario-L-Pop test as it relates to dental caries rates and severity in infants and children. METHOD AND MATERIALS: The study population was comprised of 771 infants and children who were on average 5.2 years of age (range of 1.5 to 8 years of age). Examiners conducted dental caries clinical examination using established criteria. In addition, lesion severity was determined be measuring its depth. An indicator swab was applied to the tongue dorsum until completely moistened with saliva. The indicator swab was processed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and acid production was assessed with the aid of a color chart. RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of children were caries free, and 7% (n = 50) of participants were categorized as having low production of lactic acid (scores 1 to 3), 17% (n = 135) moderate production of lactic acid (scores 4 to 6), and 76% (n = 586) high production of lactic acid (scores 7 to 9). There was a tendency for moderate and high lactic acid formers to exhibit higher surface-based caries prevalence rates, higher rates for deep dentinal lesions, and increased lesion severity. There was a linear increase of white spot surface-based lesions from low to high lactic acid formers and for initial dentinal lesions. Clinpro Cario-L-Pop test results, when controlling for age and gender, significantly distinguished caries-free participants from those exhibiting any form of decay. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Clinpro Cario-L-Pop test was useful in explaining elevated frequency and severity of dental caries in spite of the high levels of decay and of microbial acid production observed in this population.